Daniel Hutter's Publications
High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for
detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne
arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology
Lyudmyla G. Glushakova, Andrea Bradley, Kevin M. Bradley, Barry W. Alto, Shuichi Hoshika, Daniel Hutter, Nidhi Sharma, Zunyi Yang, Myong-Jung Kim, Steven A. Benner
J Virol Methods
214 , Elsevier 60-74 (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2015.01.003
Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This
makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological
studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic
acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses
in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by
noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems
by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a
"self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The
second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification
in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon,
improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are
exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that
can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The
assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the
California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue
viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.
Helicase Dependent Isothermal Amplification of DNA and RNA using Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems
Zunyi Yang, Chris McLendon, Daniel Hutter, Kevin M. Bradley, Shuichi Hoshika, Carole Frye, and Steven A. Benner
(2015) June 15; 16(9): 1365-1370. doi:10.1002/cbic.201500135.
Assays that target DNA or RNA (xNA) are highly sensitive, as small amounts of xNA can be amplified by PCR. Unfortunately, PCR is inconvenient in low resource environments, requiring equipment and power that may not be available in these environments. However, isothermal procedures that avoid thermal cycling are often confounded by primer dimers, off-target priming, and other artifacts. Here, we show how a "self avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS) eliminates these artifacts to give clean amplicons in a helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (SAMRS-HDA). We also show that incorporating SAMRS into the 3'-ends of primers facilitates the design and screening of primers for HDA assays. Finally, we show that SAMRS-HDA can be twofold multiplexed, something difficult to achieve with HDA using standard primers. This shows that SAMRS-HDA is a more versatile approach than standard HDA with a broader applicability for xNA-targeted diagnostics and research.
Recombinase-Based Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids with Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems (SAMRS)
Nidhi Sharma, Shuichi Hoshika, Daniel Hutter, Kevin M. Bradley, and Steven A. Benner
(2014) DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201402250
Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal method to amplify nucleic acid sequences without the temperature cycling that classical PCR uses. Instead of using heat to denature the DNA duplex, RPA uses recombination enzymes to swap single-stranded primers into the duplex DNA product; these are then extended using a strand-displacing polymerase to complete the cycle. Because RPA runs at low temperatures, it never forces the system to recreate base-pairs following Watson–Crick rules, and therefore it produces undesired products that impede the amplification of the desired product, complicating downstream analysis. Herein, we show that most of these undesired side products can be avoided if the primers contain components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS). Given the precision that is necessary in the recombination systems for them to function biologically, it is surprising that they accept SAMRS. SAMRS-RPA is expected to be a powerful tool within the range of amplification techniques available to scientists.
Labeled nucleoside triphosphates with reversibly terminating aminoalkoxyl groups
Hutter, D; Kim, MJ; Karalkar, N; Leal, NA; Chen, F; Guggenheim, E; Visalakshi, V; Olejnik, J; Gordon, S; Benner, SA
Nuc. Nuc. Nuc. acids
29 (11) , Taylor & Francis Group 879-895 (2010)
Nucleoside triphosphates having a 3'-ONH(2) blocking group have been prepared with and without fluorescent tags on their nucleobases. DNA polymerases were identified that accepted these, adding a single nucleotide to the 3'-end of a primer in a template-directed extension reaction that then stops. Nitrite chemistry was developed to cleave the 3'-ONH(2) group under mild conditions to allow continued primer extension. Extension-cleavage-extension cycles in solution were demonstrated with untagged nucleotides and mixtures of tagged and untagged nucleotides. Multiple extension-cleavage-extension cycles were demonstrated on an Intelligent Bio-Systems Sequencer, showing the potential of the 3'-ONH(2) blocking group in "next generation sequencing."
Incorporation of Multiple Sequential Pseudothymidines by DNA Polymerases and Their Impact on DNA Duplex Structure
Havemann, SA; Hoshika, S; Hutter, D; Benner, SA
Nuc. Nuc. Nuc. acids
27 (3) , Taylor & Francis Group 261-278 (2008)
In this article, we focus on the synthesis of aryl C-glycosides via Heck coupling. It is organized based on the type of structures used in the assembly of the C-glycosides (also called C-nucleosides) with the following subsections: pyrimidine C-nucleosides, purine C-nucleosides, and monocyclic, bicyclic, and tetracyclic C-nucleosides. The reagents and conditions used for conducting the Heck coupling reactions are discussed. The subsequent conversion of the Heck products to the corresponding target molecules and the application of the target molecules are also described.
Synthetic Biology for Improved Personalized Medicine
Benner, SA; Hoshika, S; Sukeda, M; Hutter, D; Leal, NA; Yang, ZY; Chen, F
Nucleic Acids Symp. Ser.
52 (1) 243-244 (2008) doi: 10.1093/nass/nrn123
Tools to re-sequence the genomes of individual patients having well described medical histories is the first step required to connect genetic information to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. There is little doubt that in the future, genomics will influence the choice of therapies for individual patients based on their specific genetic inheritance, as well as the genetic defects that led to disease. Cost is the principle obstacle preventing the realization of this vision. Unless the interesting parts of a patient genome can be resequenced for less than $10,000 (as opposed to $100,000 or more), it will be difficult to start the discovery process that will enable this vision. While instrumentation and biology are important to reducing costs, the key element to cost-effective personalized genomic sequencing will be new chemical reagents that deliver capabilities that are not available from standard DNA. Scientists at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution and the Westheimer Institute have developed several of these, which will be the topic of this talk.
Artificially expanded genetic information system: a new base pair with an alternative hydrogen bonding pattern
Yang, ZY; Hutter, D; Sheng, PP; Sismour, AM; Benner, SA
Nucl. Acids Res.
34 (21) 6095-6101 (2006)
To support efforts to develop a 'synthetic biology' based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS), we have developed a route to two components of a non-standard nucleobase pair, the pyrimidine analog 6-amino-5-nitro-3-(1'-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyridone (dZ) and its Watson-Crick complement, the purine analog 2-amino-8-(1'-beta-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin -4(8H)-one (dP). These implement the pyDDA:puAAD hydrogen bonding pattern (where 'py' indicates a pyrimidine analog and 'pu' indicates a purine analog, while A and D indicate the hydrogen bonding patterns of acceptor and donor groups presented to the complementary nucleobases, from the major to the minor groove). Also described is the synthesis of the triphosphates and protected phosphoramidites of these two nucleosides. We also describe the use of the protected phosphoramidites to synthesize DNA oligonucleotides containing these AEGIS components, verify the absence of epimerization of dZ in those oligonucleotides, and report some hybridization properties of the dZ:dP nucleobase pair, which is rather strong, and the ability of each to effectively discriminate against mismatches in short duplex DNA.
Expanding the genetic alphabet: Non-epimerizing nucleoside with the pyDDA hydrogen-bonding pattern
Hutter, D; Benner, SA
J. Org. Chem.
68 (25) 9839-9842 (2003)
6-Amino-3-(2'-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one (4), a C-glycoside exhibiting the nonstandard pgammaDDA hydrogen-bonding pattern, was synthesized via Heck coupling. The nitro group greatly enhances the stability of the nucleoside toward acid-catalyzed epimerization without leading to significant deprotonation of the heterocycle at physiological pH. These results make nucleoside 4 a promising candidate for an expanded genetic alphabet.
Synthetic biology with artificially expanded genetic information systems. From personalized medicine to extraterrestrial life
Benner, SA; Hutter, D; Sismour, AM
Nucleic Acids Res. Suppl.
3 125-126 (2003)
Over 15 years ago, the Benner group noticed that the DNA alphabet need not be limited to the four standard nucleotides known in natural DNA. Rather, twelve nucleobases forming six base pairs joined by mutually exclusive hydrogen bonding patterns are possible within the geometry of the Watson-Crick pair (Fig. 1). Synthesis and studies on these compounds have brought us to the threshold of a synthetic biology, an artificial chemical system that does basic processes needed for life (in particular, Darwinian evolution), but with unnatural chemical structures. At the same time, the artificial genetic information systems (AEGIS) that we have developed have been used in FDA-approved commercial tests for managing HIV and hepatitis C infections in individual patients, and in a tool that seeks the virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). AEGIS also supports the next generation of robotic probes to search for genetic molecules on Mars, Europa, and elsewhere where NASA probes will travel.
Phosphates, DNA, and the search for nonterrean life: A second generation model for genetic molecules
Benner, SA; Hutter, D
30 (1) 62-80 (2002)
Phosphate groups are found and used widely in biological chemistry. We have asked whether phosphate groups are likely to be important to the functioning of genetic molecules. including DNA and RNA. From observations made on synthetic analogs of DNA and RNA where the phosphates are replaced by nonanionic linking groups, we infer a set of rules that highlight the importance of the phosphodiester backbone for the proper functioning of DNA as a genetic molecule. The polyanionic backbone appears to give DNA the capability of replication following simple rules, and evolving. The polyanionic nature of the backbone appears to be critical to prevent the single strands from folding. permitting them to act as templates, guiding the interaction between two strands to form a duplex in a way that permits simple rules to guide the molecular recognition event, and buffering the sensitivity of its physicochemical properties to changes in sequence. We argue that the feature of a polyelectrolyte (polyanion or polycation) may be required for a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." The polyelectrolyte structure therefore may be a universal signature of life, regardless of its genesis. and unique to living forms as well. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
From phosphate to bis(methylene) sulfone: Non-ionic backbone linkers in DNA
Hutter, D; Blaettler, MO; Benner, SA
Helv. Chim. Acta
85 (9) 2777-2806 (2002)
Chimeric DNA molecules containing four different linking groups, the natural phosphate, 5'-methylenephosphonate. bis(methylene)phosphinate, and bis(methylene) sulfone (see Fig.1), were directly compared for their ability to form duplexes with complementary DNA and DNA chimeras. From melting temperatures for analogous complementary sequences, general conclusions about the impact of geometric distortion of the internucleotide linkage around the two P-O-C bridges were drawn, as were conclusions about the impact on duplex stability that arises from the removal of the negative charge in the linking group. Each structural perturbation diminished the melting temperature, by ca. -2.5degrees per modification for the 5'-methylenephosphonate, -3.5degrees per modification for the bis(methylene)phosphinate, and -4.5degrees per modification for the bis(methylene) sulfone linker. These results have implications for DNA chemistry including the design of 'antisense' candidates and the proposal of alternative genetic materials in the search for non-terrean life.
Redesigning nucleic acids
Benner, SA; Battersby, TR; Eschgfaller, B; Hutter, D; Kodra, JT; Lutz, S; Arslan, T; Baschlin, DK; Blattler, M; Egli, M; Hammer, C; Held, HA; Horlacher, J; Huang, Z; Hyrup, B; Jenny, TF; Jurczyk, SC; Konig, M; von Krosigk, U; Lutz, MJ; MacPherson, LJ; Moro
Pure Appl. Chem.
70 (2) 263-266 (1998)
A research program has applied the tools of synthetic organic chemistry to systematically modify the structure of DNA and RNA oligonucleotides to learn more about the chemical principles underlying their ability to store and transmit genetic information. Oligonucleotides (as opposed to nucleosides) have long been overlooked by synthetic organic chemists as targets for structural modification. Synthetic chemistry has now yielded oligonucleotides with 12 replicatable letters, modified backbones, and new insight into why Nature chose the oligonucleotide structures that she did.